On the Second Sunday of Advent, John the Baptist bursts onto the scene. John lives and speaks like the prophets of the Old Testament. He calls the people to repentance: a change of direction; a change of heart. The ordinary people of Israel flock to John, to confess their sins and be baptised as a sign of conversion. But the religious elite – the Pharisees and Sadducees – may be tempted to believe that their status as ‘sons of Abraham’ is a guarantee of their place in God’s kingdom. John wants to shake them out of their complacency. Everyone needs to repent, and to produce the fruits of repentance – a renewed faith and trust in God. The Baptist’s message is a stern and challenging one, but it comes with a promise; the kingdom of heaven is close at hand. In God’s kingdom, as Isaiah says, our worldly relationships of power and exploitation will be overthrown, and God will bring justice. John’s preaching challenges our complacency, too: he calls us to repentance in preparation for Christ’s coming.